Word Tips

[Last updated: 01-Jul-2022]

This page describes a few Microsoft (MS) Word tips that can improved the quality, appearance and readability of documents. By adopting them, they can also help maintain consistency across a documentation set.

Although many companies provide MS Word training sessions for their employees, there are several features of Word that they regard as only being for the Advanced User. Some of them are so simple that I believe they shoud be included in the Basic training course. Thus, a number of these so-called "advanced" features have been brought together on this page, to help produce high-quality documents.

Note: Most of the images in the body of this page were based on Word 2010. However, they are gradually being replaced with a 2016 version (where requred) when I remember and find the time. Additionally, the sizes of some images were too large for the page's design, so for relative and consistency purposes, all images are displayed at 75% of their actual size.

Resume Editing an Existing Document

Once a Word document has been saved and closed (for example, at the end of the day}, there is a quick and easy way to resume editing the document at the location where the last edit was made: Once the document has opened, press <Shift> + <F5> as the very first action.

When a document is saved and closed, Word usually places an invisible bookmark at the point where the cursor was last located. By using the <Shift> + <F5> key combination, editing can continue. However, later versions of Word (Word 365) sometimes provide an indicator (on the right-hand side of the window), where the last edit was made.

Formatting Controls

Word uses paragraph marks (¶) to control the formatting characteristics of a document. These marks contain the characteristics (styles, etc.) of the preceding object; be it a list item, paragraph or heading. Each paragraph mark can contain up to thirty different formatting commands for the screen and printer.

When copying existing text from one document to another (when both can have different styles and templates), it is important that the new document is not "contaminated" by styles from the original document. Unfortunately, contamination can easily occur when copying the paragraph marks; see Copying and Pasting Text.

As a default, formatting marks are usually invisible. However, it is useful (and highly recommended) to have them displayed. In doing so, they can reveal additional (and sometimes interesting) information about a document; for example, wasted spaces, tab spaces and line feeds that are unnecessary. Some authors do not like them displayed, because, to some, it makes the document look cluttered. However, an author can be selective of what marks are (are not) displayed.

  1. To turn formatting marks ON, click File, Options and Display
  2. Select the required marks in the Always show these formatting marks on the screen section. Of the formatting marks available (and for most documents), I find that Tab characters and Paragraph marks are the most useful options to select; see Figure 1.

    Figure 1: Formatting Marks

    There is a quicker way to display the formatting marks: Under the Home tab, click the paragraph symbol (¶) in the Paragraph group; see Figure 2.

    Figure 2: Paragraph Group

    However, the disadvantage of using this action is that it turns on ALL formatting marks, including placing a dot in every space, which·can·make·the·document·look·very·cluttered·and·difficult·to·read.

Text Boundaries

Similar to formatting marks, text boundaries show when objects (for example, paragraphs and images) are out of alignment. Similar to formatting marks, text boundaries show interesting information; for example, when objects (paragraphs and images) are out of alignment, and sometimes extend off the page! Switching text boundaries ON shows the exact limits of how and where the page layout settings are configured.

  1. Turn text boundaries ON by clicking File, Options and Advanced
  2. Scroll down to the Show document content section and select Show text boundaries; see Figure 3.

    Figure 3: Text Boundaries

    With the text boundaries now showing, the margin settings are adjusted by clicking the little arrow icon, in the bottom right-hand corner of the Page Setup group, under the Page Layout tab; see Figure 4.

    Figure 4: The Page Layout Group

    When modifying the page’s text boundaries, do not set the Top, Bottom, Left and Right margins to zero; most printers are unable to print to the page’s edge. Unless otherwise stated, a suggested, and convenient, distance is 2.5 cm for the Top and Bottom margins and 2.0 cm for the Left and Right margins; see Figure 5.

    Figure 5: Page Setup

Paragraph Horizontal Indentation

Little appears to be known about Word’s text indentation, so many authors use the <Tab> key or the <Space Bar> to move or position text to the right. This action can cause additional editing maintenance if the document is modified at a later date! Therefore, do not use these two keys to move text to the right. Word uses proportional spacing for its most common fonts, so the <Space Bar> does not provide consistent or representative spacing. Instead:

  1. Click the small arrow in the bottom right-hand corner of the Paragraph group (see Figure 2) to open the Paragraph Settings pane
  2. Click the Indents and Spacing tab; see Figure 6
  3. Use the Left and Right values in the Indentation section.

    Figure 6: Paragraph Indent and Spacing

    In the Indentation group, a value of 0 cm means that the text aligns with the text boundary. To indent the text, set the Left value to 0.5 cm, 1.0 cm, or the required distance from the left-hand margin.

    Note: Only set a Right value if there is a specific requirement to. Also, ensure the Special value is set to None for normal paragraphs.

See also Adjust indents and spacing (Microsoft Office Support).

Paragraph Vertical Spacing

Do not use the <Enter> key to increase the white space between objects (for example, paragraphs). Instead, set all objects (except Headings) with a vertical spacing of 0 pt Before and 6 pt After (in the Spacing section of Figure 6). These values provide an adequate amount of white space between objects, without it being too excessive.

See also Adjust indents and spacing (Microsoft Office Support).

Copying and Pasting Text

Now that paragraph marks (¶) have been explained (in Formatting Controls), there are a few things to be aware of when copying and pasting text between documents.

As the flu virus (or Coronavirus (Covid-19)) can be passed amongst humans, unwanted styles can be passed from document to document by pasting, and via the default template file (Normal.dot/dotx).

If the source document has origins from an unknown (or 'alien') location, it is quite possible that it may contain, or have become infected (or contaminated) with, unwanted styles. Thus, if the Paragraph mark is copied from the source document and pasted into the target document, the template governing the target document could equally become infected (or contaminated) with those unwanted styles.

There are two ways of copying (or moving) text between documents:
Inserting Text using Paste and
Inserting Text using Paste Special.

For both processes, navigate to the text to copy in the source document and ensure paragraph marks are showing.

Inserting Text using Paste

This is the most common process and quickest option [but can give rise to problems if paragraph marks are included]:

  1. Turn ON the paragraph marks, if they are not already on
  2. Open the source document and navigate to the text to copy
  3. Select the required text, but DO NOT include any paragraph marks.

    In most situations when selecting text, Word automatically includes the paragraph mark at the end of a sentence. To avoid copying the paragraph mark, position the cursor at the beginning of the text to copy, hold down the <Shift> key and select the required text using appropriate arrow keys: ç, è, é and ê.

  4. Copy (<Ctrl> + <C>) the required text paragraph by paragraph, minus any paragraph marks.

    Admittedly, this process could take some time (depending on the size of the document), but it reduces the risk of copying unwanted styles.

    If the paragraph mark is inadvertently included in the Copy phase, the destination document 'could' become infected with the style from the source document (when the copied text is pasted into that document). However, take note of the next item.

  5. Open the destination document and Paste (<Ctrl> + <V>) the copied text.

    A small pane opens, with a number of Paste Options; see Figure 7. Select the last option: Keep Text Only (T). This pastes the copied text into the document without any formatting characteristics, ensuring the pasted text adopts the destination document's formatting style.

    Figure 7: Paste Options

    If the pasted text does not resemble the destination format, use the Format Painter to reformat the copied text.

Inserting Text using Paste Special

This is a less common approach, but pastes text without any formatting associated with it.

  1. Copy (<Ctrl> + <C>) the text paragraph by paragraph minus any paragraph marks, as previously described
  2. In the destination document, place the cursor at the required insertion point
  3. Click the Paste down arrow, in the Clipboard Group (Figure 8), under the Home tab

    Figure 8: Clipboard Group

  4. In the Paste Special pane that opens (Figure 9), select Unformatted Text

    Figure 9: Paste as Unformatted Text

  5. Click OK and the copied text is pasted into the destination document, adopting the surrounding style. Any styles in the destination document are therefore preserved from contamination.

The Spike Feature/Tool

The Spike is an extended clipboard feature of Microsoft Word. It allows you to remove two or more items (such as text or graphics) from non-adjacent locations in a Word document, and then insert the items as a group in a new location or document. The items remain in the Spike so you can insert them repeatedly. To add a different set of items to the Spike, you must first empty the Spike's contents.

To move items to and from the Spike:

  1. Select the text or graphic you want to move, and then press <Ctrl> + <F3> [or <Command> + <F3> (on a Mac)]
  2. Repeat this step for each additional item you want to move to the Spike
  3. Click in the document where you want to insert the Spike's contents
  4. To insert the Spike's contents and empty the Spike, press <Ctrl> + <Shift> + <F3> [or <Command> + <Shift> + <F3> (on a Mac)].

Format Painter

The Format Painter applies formatting from one object to another. To use the Format Painter:

  1. Select the object (text or image, etc.) having the required format to copy
  2. Click the Format Painter icon, in the Clipboard group, under the Home tab; see Figure 8
  3. With the cursor resembling a paintbrush, 'paint' the object to be reformatted - Et Viola!

Note: To format multiple objects with the same style, double-click the Format Painter icon. This allows the cursor to be used numerous times. To turn the feature OFF, either click the Format Painter icon again, or press the <Esc> key.

Track Changes

To avoid having a document full of markup changes, ensure Track Changes are turned OFF when creating:

Once the new document has been successfully created, there is a probability that it needs to be updated. At this point, Track Changes need to be turned ON. Track change controls are located in the Tracking and Changes groups (see Figure 10), under the Review tab.

Figure 10: The Tracking and Changes Group

  1. Turn track changes ON by clicking Track Changes in the Tracking group; see Figure 10
  2. Select Track Changes from the dropdown menu.
    Track Changes can also be turned on/off by pressing <Ctrl> + <Shift> + <E>
  3. Apply the updates.
    As well as any corrections shown throughout the text, modifications are indicated by vertical lines in the page margins.

Printing Change Bars without Track Changes

Some companies choose to indicate changes in their documents by having change bars printed in the page margins (indicating the location of a change), but without showing the actual track changes (that have previously been accepted). To create this effect:

  1. Navigate to the Tracking group (see Figure 10) and click the small arrow in the bottom right-hand corner of the Tracking group. This opens the Track Changes Options dialogue box (Figure 11)

    In earlier versions of Word, the Track Change Options dialogue box is accessed by clicking Track Changes and selecting Change Tracking Options....

    Figure 11: The Track Changes Options

  2. Click the Advanced Option... button to open the Advanced Track Changes Options.
  3. In the Markup section (in Figure 12), change the Insertions value from Underline to (none) and the Deletions value from Strikethrough to Hidden

    Figure 12: The Advanced Track Changes Options

  4. Click OK twice to close the two dialogue boxes and return to the document.

Voila! the document should now show change bars in the margins (where approprite), and no markup text.

See also How to print change bars only (Microsoft Community) and/or How to print change bars but not the edit detail in Word 2013; this also applies to the current version of Microsoft Word 365.

Non-breaking Space

Using this little-publicised, but useful feature, can save a lot of annoying confusion. Sometimes, short links, for example, "Figure 3", are split at the end of a line; i.e., "Figure" at the end of the line and "3" at the beginning of the next line. This situation can be avoided by inserting a Non-Breaking SPace (NBSP - HTML code: &nbsp;).

To apply an NBSP to, for example, Figure 12:

The key combination effectively glues Figure and 12 together, so that they are never split. If there is no room for both of them at the end of a line, both words (Figure 12) are positioned on the next line.

Similarly, the non-breaking hyphen (HTML code &#8209;) is used to define a hyphen character (‑) that does not break into a new line. See HTML Entities

Separated Paragraph Headings

How many times have you seen a heading (be it for text or a table) at the bottom of a page and the rest of the text (or table) is on the next page? This scenario can be easily rectified.

  1. Select the heading
  2. Right-click within the highlighted heading and select Paragraph...
    Navigate to the Home tab and open the Paragraph Settings pane by clicking the small arrow in the bottom right-hand corner of the Paragraph group; see Figure 2
  3. After the Paragraph pane opens, click the Line and Page Breaks tab, and select Keep with next in the Pagination section; see Figure 13.

    Figure 13: Keep with Next

    Note: In Figure 13, the Keep with next and Keep lines together options work across page boundaries, but differently from each other:

    The Keep with next option keeps, or 'glues', two objects together (for example, a heading and its following paragraph; or images/tables and their captions).

    The Keep lines together option keeps lines of text in the same paragraph together; i.e., it does not split paragraphs across page boundaries.

    When paragraph marks are turned ON and Keep with next has been selected, a small, black square appears to the left of the selected object (see Figure 14), which indicates that the object is ‘glued’ to the object that follows it; i.e., the heading Separated Headings is 'glued' to the paragraph beginning with “How many times…”.

    Figure 14: Small, Square ‘Keep with next’ Marks

Table Formatting

To ensure tables look aesthetically pleasing to the eye, and have a consistent look about them, apply the following options.

Note: When the cursor is placed anywhere inside a table, two additional tabs (Design and Layout) appear under a new ‘parent’ Table Tools group.

  1. White Space - When a table spans more than one page, it is possible that large blank areas appear at the bottom of pages, due to the height of some rows (or images) being greater than the remaining available space on the page. If the order of rows is not important, consider rearranging the table rows to avoid this situation.

    However, if the vertical size (height) of the table row is greater than the whole page, consider splitting the row into logical segments (paragraphs). Also, for exceptions like this, the Allow rows to break across pages option may need to be selected.

  2. Separated Table Headers - The Keep with next option that is applied to paragraph headings (see Separated Paragraph Headings) should also be applied to table headers, to avoid the all-too-common scenario where a table header becomes ‘divorced’ from the rest of the table, across a page boundary.

    Table 1 represents the Keep with next option when the caption is ‘glued’ to the table heading, which itself is ‘glued’ to the first table row; indicated by the small black squares. Therefore, if there is not enough space at the bottom of a page for the ‘glued’ items, Word places all three items on the next page.

    • Table 1: A Sample Table
    ■ Column 1 Heading (Width = 40%) Column 2 Heading (Width = 30%) Column 3 Heading (Width = 30%)
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  3. Repeat Header Rows - To ensure a table's header row ("Column #..." in Table 1) is repeated at the top of each page, when a table spans a page boundary, select the table's Header row and click Repeat Header Rows (in the Data group (see Figure 15) under the second Layout tab).

    Figure 15: 'Repeat Header Rows' in the Data Group

  4. Table Alignment - Microsoft (in its infinite wisdom!) has a ‘feature’ whereby it believes that the text inside a table should align with the text of the surrounding paragraphs. Depending upon the version of Word, this ‘feature’ causes table borders to protrude (or extend) outside the text boundaries! To correct this situation, the whole table needs to be moved approximately 0.2 cm to the right; and the column widths adjusted accordingly.

    Note: It appears that this anomaly has (at last!) been corrected in Word 2013 and later: i.e., table borders now align with the text boundaries!

    If using a verion of Word prior to Word 2013, select the table, click Properties (in the Tables group, under the Layout tab). Under the Table tab, set the Indent from left value to approximately 0.2 cm greater than the Horizontal Indentation.

    With reference to Figure 16, paragraphs before and after the table had an initial Indent from left setting of 1.5 cm. Therefore, to set the table border in-line with the text, the Indent from left value has been set to 1.7 cm (1.5 cm + 0.2 cm).

    Figure 16: Table Properties

  5. Table Column Widths – On many occasions, I have seen table columns (that contain one or two words) having the same width as columns that are full of text. Why? Some people cannot apply common sense when creating column widths according to the amount of data within the columns. For example, if a particular column does not contain much information (it only contains numbers), why should it be 5 cms wide? Set the column width to perhaps 2 cms.

    To adjust column widths, select a table column by right-clicking the mouse and selecting Table Properties; a Tables Properties pane opens (see Figure 17).

    Figure 17: Table Column Widths

    Adjust the Preferred width value to the required width; 2 cms as in the previous example. In a metric environment, ensure Centimetres (the Americans can’t spell!) is showing in the Measure in field.

    Adjust the selected table column's width to the nearest 0.1 cm. Move to the remaining columns (using the Previous Column and/or Next Column buttons). If the columns contain a lot of information, consider adjusting the columns, so that the table is full-width. This ensures that the combined width of the columns fit exactly within the text boundaries.

    However, do not create columns that are too narrow; especially when they contain automatic numbering. I have seen unwanted – and unseen - text in a cell, where the column width was too narrow and the full number was not displayed. For columns containing numbers (for example, 6.3.10, set the column width to 2 cm).

  6. Table Rows – To prevent table rows from splitting across page boundaries, select the Row tab (in Figure 16) to display the Row properties (in Figure 18).

    Figure 18: Table Row Properties

    Deselect the Allow rows to break across pages option, as shown in Figure 18. With this option deselected, rows are NOT split across page boundaries, and thus the full context of the row text is maintained; avoiding any confusion and misunderstanding!

    If, however, this option is selected (usually the default), one or two words, a phrase, or even a single question/exclamation mark (if separated from the text by a space (as written in French)), can appear on the next page, on its own; which can be totally confusing and meaningless!

    Note: Unless there is a specific reason to set the height of a row, let Word set the row height; i.e., keep the Specify Height value blank, particularly if the text's Spacing settings (Before and After) are set, for example, to 3 points; see Figure 19.

  7. Row Spacing - To provide a constant and consistent spacing of all cell contents throughout all tables in a document, select each table in turn (including the header) and click the small arrow in the bottom right-hand corner of the Paragraph group; see Figure 2.

    In the Spacing section of the Paragraph pane (Figure 19), set a vertical spacing of 3 pt Before and 3 pt After. [The nearest equivalent of these spacing settings (padding: 7.5px in HTML) has been applied to Table 1.]

    Figure 19: Paragraph Spacing

  8. Borders and Shading – Unless there is a justification or tradition to do otherwise, avoid colouring table headers in your favourite rainbow colour(s)! Some establishments only have monochrome printers. In these cases, the printer has to interpret the colour to the nearest grey tone; thus (fractionally) increasing the processing time.

    Apply shading to the table header, to improve the overall appearance of the table.

    Select the header, right-click and select Borders and Shading...
    In the Table Styles group, under the Design tab, click Borders, and in the dropdown menu, click Borders and Shading from the dropdown list. Finally, click the Shading tab; see Figure 20.

    Figure 20: Shading

    From the Style dropdown menu, select 10% as the style of shading. This provides an adequate amount of grey colouring to differentiate the table header from the rest of the table’s data rows, without being too bold - and consuming excessive printer toner!

  9. Captions - Add captions to tables and figures to aid navigation. For example, if there are three small tables on a page and the text reads “…the table below", how does the reader know which table is being referred to - unless they are labelled?!

    Also, if cross-references are used and a table is moved to another part of the document, any references to it are automatically updated - providing the whole document is updated, as follows:

    To update the document, excluding the Table of Contents (TOC):

    1. Position the cursor at the beginning of the first paragraph of Chapter 1; usually AFTER the TOC
    2. Select the document from the cursor to the end of the document by pressing <Ctrl> + <Shift> + <End>
    3. Press <F9> to update the selected text.

      Note: It is possible that some references may not have been updated correctly. To check, search the document for Error! Reference source not found.. If any of these messages are found, update the reference(s) manually.

    To apply a caption to a table, select the whole table, right-click inside the table and select Insert Caption. Reformat the caption (as required), as Microsoft’s default style for a table caption may be too small for your particular requirements!

    Don't forget to apply the Keep with next option to the caption; see Separated Paragraph Headings.

Table Calculations

Microsoft Word can produce simple mathematical functions, such as adding and multiplication. Refer to the following links for more information:

Using formulæ in a table
Using the '=SUM()' command (at WordMVP)


Images come in a variety of formats, namely: .png (Portable Network Graphics), .jpg/.jpeg (Joint Photographic Experts Group), .gif (Graphics Interchange Format) and .bmp (Windows Bitmap).

Consider the following formats when inserting images into documents:

Based on the last bullet item, do not paste <Print Screen> (or <Prt Scr>) images into documents, as they effectively have the Bitmap format. Instead, use the Windows Snipping Tool to capture the required pane, window or part of the screen, save the resulting image as a .png image, and then insert the image into the document.

If any .bmp files exist in the document, it is wise to convert them, by copying and pasting them into the Windows Paint application (or your favourite image editor), and save them (for example) in the .png format, before inserting the new, smaller image into the document.

Note: For consistency purposes, when inserting images into a document, ensure that they are all illustrated at the same size. Although all images on this page have been inserted full-size (100%), they have been reduced to 75% of their original size. This shows the true relative sizes between the various images. For example, it would look totally wrong if Figure 8 was produced the same size as Figure 9! They are not the same size! Besides, if an image similar to Figure 1 was illustrated full-size, it would extent outside the page boundaries (paper version) and look over-scaled on a web page.

Double Spaces

Do not enter double spaces between sentences, as they can lead to both incorrect pagination and spacing. Modern word prosessing applications (for example, MS Word) use proportional spacing for most of their fonts.

P.S. Typewriters are a thing of the past (last century)!!!

Document Reviewing

When all editing is complete, the author should pass the document to the reviewer(s).

Note: If there are two or more reviewers (and there is no electronic document management system), the review process must define who is to accept the changes (once all review comments have been discussed and agreed), and define whether to review in series or in parallel:

The in series process is better for the author, as there is only one document in which to accept/reject the changes. Also, the reviewers may provide additional modifications/comments to any previous reviewer comments. The downside of this process is that the reviewing process can take longer as the document is passed from one reviewer to the next reviewer.

If the in parallel process is chosen, the author must be given enough time to review the mark-up comments in all reviewed documents.

If there are many modifications/comments, they can be hidden by clicking All Markup and selecting No Markup, in the Tracking group, under the Review tab; see Figure 10 (in the Track Changes section). Supressing the markup modifications and comments, produces a clean-looking document. They still exist within the document, but are hidden. When the reviewing process is completed, the reviewed version could be saved as "file_name_markup.docx".

Accept the changes by clicking Accept in the Changes group (see Figure 10), and selecting Accept All Changes. If preferred, changes can be accepted one-by-one, by clicking Accept and selecting Accept and Move to Next from the dropdown menu. This version might be saved simply as "file_name.docx" to differentiate it from the marked-up version.

Table of Contents

The very last (and important) action to be done to a document is to update the Table of Contents (TOC).

  1. Select the TOC
  2. Press <F9>

    If presented with the Update Table of Contents pane (Figure 21), select Update entire table and click OK.

    Figure 21: Update the Complete Table of Contents

Updating the TOC can show if any objects have been formatted incorrectly. For example, if, in the TOC, you see text that you know is NOT a heading, locate the text and reformat as required, using the Format Painter.

With a keen eye, you can also see headings that have unwanted spaces after the text. Remove them and update the TOC again.

Document Templates

There is a lot of confusion surrounding the word template when it comes to documentation. Microsoft’s definition is:
A file or files that contain the structure and tools for shaping such elements as the style and page layout of finished files.

From a User point-of-view, a document template is usually a blank document, containing fields or paragraphs that require populating.
From a System point-of-view, a document template refers to Word’s system-wide Normal.dot/dotx file.

The latter definition is descried as follows:

A template contains specific styles, whether they are from Microsoft, or created elsewhere. Implementing a template (or set of templates) can help:

Having a set of documents with a common template (for all similar types of document) also makes copying text between the documents easier, as the documents share the same styles. A common template is also better for the user; he/she can switch from one document to another without having to worry about changing styles; as all styles are common between the documents.

Thus, by using a bespoke template, there is less risk of a document becoming 'contaminated' with extraneous styles, and potentially corrupting future documents. This is especially relevant if the origin of a document is not known.

Note: Applying a global bespoke template could be a problem for the IT department; for example, deciding which users require the template and those that don't! If installed, would the user know of its presence and how to use it? Would there be (regular) updates?

Suggested Template Settings: The following list is not a de faco rule. It simply contains my suggestions that can assist in maintaining clarity and consistency.

Style to Follow

This is a feature (style) of MS Word that produces a specific style when the Enter key is pressed. For example, the most common object to follow a Level 1 or Level 2 Heading, is a paragraph. This can be an automatic action, if the template style is set up correctly.

Figure 22 illustrates where the Style for following paragraph setting is made. In this example, the style that follows a Style Heading 1 +14 pt will always be a Normal paragraph.

Figure 22: Modify Style

Cross-References to Non-Standard Headings

Cross-references to headings, figures and tables, etc., are easy to create, making use of bookmarks. However, a document having non-standard headings (for example, Annexes) may not contain bookmarks. Therefore, in order to insert a cross-reference to an Annex heading, create a bookmark for the heading before continuing, as follows:

  1. Select the label part of the annex heading; i.e., Annex 1
  2. On the Standard toolbar, click Insert and Bookmark (in the Links group)
  3. The Bookmark pane opens (Figure 23). If there is no bookmark for the Annex, enter the name on the bookmark (without any spaces); for example, annex_1

    Figure 23: Bookmarks

  4. Click Add.

    Repeat the above steps for every 'non-standard' heading in the document; for example, Annex 2 (Bookmark name: annex_2), Annex 3 (Bookmark name: annex_3), etc. Now a cross-reference can be created to each new bookmark in the normal way, as follows:
  5. From the Insert tab, click Cross-reference (in the Links group)
  6. In the Cross-reference pane that opens, select Bookmark from the Reference type dropdown menu
  7. Select the appropriate bookmark (if more than one); for example, annex_1
  8. Ensure the Insert reference to field shows Bookmark text
  9. Click Insert and Annex 1 appears at the insertion point.

Place the cursor over Annex 1 and the link should be displayed, verifying the existance of a cross-reference. The cross-reference can be copied and pasted as many times throughout the document, if required.

Changing the Default Font

Microsoft introduced a new default font (Calibri) with Word 2007. If, for some reason, the default font needs to be changed, use the following list of actions:

  1. On the Home tab, click the small arrow (in the bottom-right corner of the Styles group) and a Styles pane opens
  2. At the bottom of the Styles pane, click the small Manage Styles button and the Manage Styles pane is displayed; Figure 24.

    Figure 24: Manage Styles

  3. Click the Set Defaults tab
  4. Select and click the required font; for example, Arial
  5. Select and click the required font Size; for example, 11
  6. Select the Only in this document option
  7. Click OK.

Creating and Using Bookmarks


A bookmark in a Word document is an aid to quickly locate certain passages of text. The process of creating a bookmark is as follows:

  1. Select the text to which the bookmark is to be associated
  2. Click Insert, Links and Bookmark; see Figure 25

    Figure 25: Insert Bookmark

    and a Bookmark pane opens; Figure 26.

    Figure 26: Bookmark Maintenance

    Any pre-existing bookmarks are shown in the centre area of the pane.

  3. In the Bookmark name field, enter the bookmark name to create (for example, DDD). Do not include any spaces.

    If separation is required, replace spaces with the underscore character (for example, A_B_C_D).

  4. Click Add

    References and Cross-reference in the Options group and the Cross-reference selection box opens

  5. In the Reference type dropdown box, select Bookmark

Using Multiple References to the Same Footnote

Normally, Word allows only a one-to-one relationship between footnote references and footnotes. If there is a need to have more than one reference to the same footnote:

  1. Insert the first (primary) footnote as normal
  2. Position the insertion point in the document where you want the secondary reference to the footnote
  3. Click Insert and Cross-reference and Word displays the Cross-reference dialog pane; see Figure 27

    Figure 27: Insert Cross-reference

  4. Using the Insert reference to drop-down list, select Footnote number. Word displays a list of footnotes in the For which footnote pane
  5. Select the required footnote and click Insert. The Cancel button changes to Close
  6. If all cross-references have been made at that point, click Close.

Language and Spell Checker

When working at, or with, companies where a document has been written in one language (for example, English) and may have been modified in another country (for example, France or Italy), a Word document can adopt the local language for part (or all) of the document. Thus, the document may show red wavy underlining, indicating a possible spelling mistake.

Unless there is a requirement to have text in a second language in a document, the document's language can be easily modified, or even added if a language is not showing:

  1. Select the complete document, using <Ctrl> + <A>
  2. Click the language cell in the Status Bar (English (United Kingdom) in Figure 28) to display the Language pane (Figure 29)

    Figure 28: Word's Status Bar


    Figure 29: Language Selection

  3. Select the required language from the list
  4. If the selected language is to be Word's default language, click Set As Default
  5. Click OK and the selected language is shown in the Status Bar.

Note: Once the required language has been applied, it is possible that some words may be underlined with a red wavy line. Check that the spelling and langaue are correct. [Any potential grammatical errors are underlined with a blue wavy line.]

Other Reference Pages

This section contains a list of useful web pages (opening in a new tab) that can be used to produce high-quality documents.

Mastering the Spelling Checker http://wordfaqs.ssbarnhill.com/...
Language not showing on Status Bar https://answers.microsoft.com/...
Language setting cannot be added to Status Bar https://answers.microsoft.com/...
Proofing Language Keeps Changing https://answers.microsoft.com/...
Acronyms and Abbreviations http://www.acronymfinder.com
Common Errors in English https://brians.wsu.edu/common-errors/
Lorem Ipsum https://lipsum.com/
MacWord's Normal Template https://wordmvp.com/Mac/MacWordNormal.html

Note: Although written for the Mac version of Microsoft Word, a lot of the topic applies to the Windows version.
How to Maggie a Corrupt Document https://answers.microsoft.com/.....
Avoid Word Corruptions https://tidbits.com/2013/03/28/avoid-and-fix-word-document-corruption/
Document Corruption (Mac) https://wordmvp.com/Mac/DocumentCorruption.html/
Erin Wright Word Tutorials https://erinwrightwriting.com/category/microsoft-word/
[The Late] Shauna Kelly https://shaunakelly.com/word/index.html
[The Late] Shauna Kelly Bullets https://shaunakelly.com/word/bullets/controlbullets.html
[The Late] Shauna Kelly Basic Concepts https://shaunakelly.com/topic/word/concepts.html
[The Late] Shauna Kelly Control Bullets https://shaunakelly.com/word/bullets/controlbullets.html
[The Late] Shauna Kelly Templates https://shaunakelly.com/word/templates/templaterelations.html
Space (Non-breaking) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-breaking_space
Space (Normal Puncuation) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_(punctuation)
Microsoft Word Add-Ins https://wordaddins.com/
Microsoft Word Templates https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/previous-versions/office/developer/office-xp/aa140287(v=office.10)
Suzanne Barnhill (MVP) http://wordfaqs.ssbarnhill.com/index.htm


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